Silica nanoparticles is also called nano-silica. Nanosilica is an advanced material with unique physical and chemical properties, including small size effect, large specific surface area, high surface energy, and reactivity. This paper will introduce the basic properties, preparation methods, application areas, and future development directions of nano silica.
Basic properties of Silica nanoparticles
Nanosilica is a transparent, amorphous, non-toxic, and odorless solid material with a high specific surface area, hardness, and melting point. Its particle size is usually between 1-100 nanometers, with great surface energy and reactivity. The main component of nano-silicon dioxide is elemental silicon, which has high chemical and thermal stability and can remain stable in high temperatures, strong acids, strong alkalis, and other harsh environments.
Characteristics of Silica nanoparticles
- High specific surface area
Silica nanoparticles particles have a high specific surface area; the surface area per unit volume is large. This characteristic makes nano-silicon dioxide has high reactivity and adsorption ability and can better interact with the surrounding environment and play its superior performance.
- High activity
Silica nanoparticles particles have high surface activity; the surface of the number of atoms is high, making it has a high chemical reactivity and biological activity. It can carry out chemical reactions with other substances and shows good biological activity in the organism, with good cytocompatibility and biodegradability.
- High permeability
Silica nanoparticles have a large porosity and channels, making them highly absorbent. It can penetrate the interior of plant cells, promote nutrient absorption and transportation, and improve plants’ growth efficiency.
- Good thermal stability and chemical reactivity
Silica nanoparticles particles have good thermal stability and chemical reactivity. They can remain stable in extreme environments such as high temperatures, strong acids, strong alkalis, etc., and show good adaptability to chemical reactions with various substances.
Preparation method of Silica nanoparticles
There are various methods for the preparation of Silica nanoparticles, including chemical vapor deposition, sol-gel method, microemulsion method, template method, and so on. Among them, chemical vapor deposition and sol-gel methods are the more commonly used.
- Chemical vapor deposition
Chemical Deposition of vapor is an extensively employed method for the preparation of nanomaterials. Its fundamental principle is to break in the gas reaction at a high temperature in order to create solid materials and then deposit them onto the substrate. Nanomaterials of various structure, compositions and properties are made by controlling the conditions of the reaction.
- Sol-gel method
Sol-gel method is a commonly used chemical synthesis method; the basic principle is that the metal alcohol salts or inorganic salts are hydrolyzed, condensed, and other reactions to generate sols and then prepared into gels through aging, gelation, and other processes. Nanomaterials with different compositions, structures, and properties can be prepared by controlling the reaction conditions.
Due to its unique properties, nano silica has many applications in many fields, including electronics, optics, biomedicine, coatings, etc.
- Electronic field
Nsilicon dioxide can be used in electronic devices as conductive fillers, dielectric fillers, semiconductors, etc. Its small size effect can improve the performance and reliability of devices.
- Optical field
Silica nanoparticles has a high refractive index, low scattering, and other characteristics and can be used as a coating material for optical devices to improve the transmittance and reflectivity of the device.
- Biomedical field
Nano-silicon dioxide has the advantages of non-toxicity, non-irritation, etc. It can be used as drug carriers, biosensors, and artificial organs in the biomedical field.
- Coating field
Silica nanoparticles can be used as coating additives to improve coatings’ hardness and weather resistance. Its high specific surface area can improve coatings’ adhesion and abrasion resistance.
Application of silica nanoparticles in agriculture
Silica nanoparticles are nanomaterials with special properties, such as high specific surface area, high activity, high permeability, good thermal stability, and chemical reactivity. These properties make them have a wide range of application prospects in agriculture.
- Improve plant growth efficiency
Silicon dioxide nanoparticles can promote plant growth and improve the efficiency of photosynthesis. This is because silica nanoparticles can increase plant leaves’ surface area, allowing more light energy to be absorbed and utilized. In addition, silica nanoparticles can also promote the growth of the plant root system and improve the absorption of water and nutrients.
- Enhance plant disease resistance
Silicon dioxide nanoparticles can form a protective film on the surface of plants, effectively preventing the invasion of germs and pests. At the same time, nano silica nanoparticles can also enhance the plant’s immune system to improve the plant’s disease resistance.
- Improve the quality of agricultural products
Silicon dioxide nanoparticles can increase the thickness and glossiness of plant leaves, making agricultural products more beautiful and improving the commodity value. At the same time, Silica nanoparticles nanoparticles can also increase the hardness of the fruit, improve the storability and extend the shelf life.
- Improve agricultural economic benefits
Nano-silicon dioxide nanoparticles can reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, reducing agricultural production costs. At the same time, nano silica nanoparticles can also improve the yield and quality of agricultural products, increasing agricultural economic benefits.
Research progress of nano silica nanoparticles in agriculture
In recent years, scholars at home and abroad have extensively researched applying Silica nanoparticles nanoparticles in agriculture. Studies have shown that nano silica nanoparticles have significant effects in improving plant growth efficiency, disease resistance, quality of agricultural products, and economic benefits.
However, the application of silica nanoparticles in agriculture still has some problems, such as safety, environmental impact, etc., which need to be further studied and explored. In the future, with the continuous development of nanotechnology, the application of nano silica nanoparticles in agriculture will become more and more extensive, providing new ideas and ways for the modernization and sustainable development of agriculture.
The future development direction of Silica nanoparticles
The application areas of nano silica will continue to expand with the continuous progress of science and technology. In the future, nano silica is expected to make new progress in the following areas:
New material development
With nanotechnology’s continuous development, new nanomaterials continue to emerge. Silica nanoparticles can be used as a basic material for developing new functional materials, such as self-repairing materials, smart materials, and so on.
New energy field
In the new energy field, Silica nanoparticles can be used as battery electrode materials, solar cell materials, etc. Its high specific surface area can improve the capacity of batteries and the conversion efficiency of solar cells.
Silica nanoparticles can be used in environmental treatment, such as water treatment, air purification, etc. Its high adsorption performance can effectively remove harmful substances in water and harmful gases in the air.
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